Mangostein Fruit

Discussion in 'Fitness & Nutrition' started by cd'a, Sep 21, 2005.

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  1. cd'a

    cd'a New Member

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    Mangosteen Fruit

    Has anyone on OT heard of this new fruit they've found in Asia? Supposedly it has many medicinal qualities the rest of the world is now catching onto.
     
    Last edited: Sep 21, 2005
  2. cd'a

    cd'a New Member

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    mangostein...Not mangos. You'd probably have to live in a box not to know what mango's are.
     
  3. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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    its fucking good. and its in no way new. you can get them in canada. i was in hong kong ealier this month and they are now selling mangostein juice in jugs saying that its really good for you.. hmmm.
     
  4. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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  5. cd'a

    cd'a New Member

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    I've been reading about them and they seem to now be producing a juice over here called Xango. Apparently the effects of drinking this juice are in some ways as good if not better than chemo therapy for cancer patients. Could be the find of the decade probably century if it's true.?
     
  6. cd'a

    cd'a New Member

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    Yeah, I've seen that site. There doesn't seem to be a wealth of info on the net meaning it must be fairly new.
     
  7. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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    all i know is that is my fav fruit. tastes super good.

    hmmmmm the juice site says that the pericarp (outside skin part) of the fruit is what contains most of the good stuff (antioxidents) and thats the stuff you're not supose to eat because its bitter. i was also wondering why the juice was purple when when the part you eat is white but i guess they grind the whole fruit down for the juice, which means it might not taste so good.

    i'm gonna look up Xanthone (the antioxident found the in mangosteen pericarp) a little bit more...
     
  8. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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    i looked it up on Pub med and heres a little bit of an artical i found, most of it is beyond my scope of understanding:

    Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L. (Guttifereae), is a tree that is fairly widespread in Thai, India, Srilanka, and Myanmar and is known for its medicinal properties. The fruit hull of this plant has been in use in Thai indigenous medicine for the treatment of skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea for many years [1]. Thus, mangosteen may be expected to contain an anti-inflammatory drug. γ-Mangostin, a constituent of the fruit hull, is a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone derivative. Xanthone derivative has been reported to possess several pharmacological activities, such as antimalarial activity [2], antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [3], and inhibitory activity for monoamine oxidase [4].

    In the brain, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels are very low or undetectable in normal conditions, but can rise during inflammatory processes, multiple sclerosis, and AIDS-associated dementia [5 and 6]. High levels of PGE2 can affect the activities of several cell types, including neurons, glial, and endothelial cells, and can regulate microglia/macrophage and lymphocyte functions during inflammatory and immune processes [7]. Therefore, the interplay between PGE2 and other local factors, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, is likely to influence the outcome of inflammatory and immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS). There is considerable evidence linking the generation of prostaglandins (PGs) with inflammation, pain, and fever. Glial cells, which outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1 in the brain, provide both mechanical and metabolic support for neurons. Glial cells are assumed to be an important source of PGs in the CNS [8]. It is suggested that regulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, particularly PGE2 production, appears beneficial in patients with inflammatory conditions [9].

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is subdivided into several groups based on their structures and enzymatic characteristics [10, 11 and 12]. Secretory (s)PLA2 is a family of low-molecular-mass (14 kDa) enzymes that require millimolar concentration of Ca2+ for enzymatic activity. Cytosolic (cPLA2), or group IV PLA2, is a ubiquitously distributed 85 kDa enzyme, the activation of which is tightly regulated by postreceptor transmembrane signaling. cPLA2 is activated by p42/p44 extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) under cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of the submicromolar or micromolar range, and p42/p44 ERK/MAPK was activated by dual phosphorylation of tyrosine/threonine residues [11 and 13].

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the rate-limiting enzyme in PG synthesis and exists as two isoforms, constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2). These isoforms originate from distinct genes, but are structurally conserved [14 and 15]. COX-1 is regarded as a constitutive enzyme whose expression is developmentally regulated. PGs produced by COX-1 primarily function in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, gastric acid secretion, and platelet aggregation. In contrast, COX-2 is expressed in response to inflammatory stimuli and is active in physiological responses to growth factors and glucocorticoids [16].

    In this study, we examined the effect of γ-mangostin (Fig. 1), a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone contained in mangosteen, on AA cascade in C6 rat glioma cells. The results suggest that γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, directly inhibits COX activity.
     
  9. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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    Discussion
    The fruit hull of G. mangostana L., mangosteen, has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea for many years in Southeast Asia [1]. The crude extract of the fruit hull has been reported to possess several pharmacological activities, such as inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease [26] and antimicrobial activity [27]. Several constituents contained in the fruit hull of mangosteen, such as α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, or another substances, have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anti-histamine activity [28], inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pumping adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)ase [29], and anti-serotonin activity [30]. Among then, we selected γ-mangostin to examine its activity of PGE2 synthesis. In the analysis using C6 rat glioma cells, we show that γ-mangostin has a potent inhibitory effect on PGE2 synthesis. A synthetic xanthone derivative, 3-[2-(cyclopropylamino)ethoxy] xanthone inhibits AA-induced platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation [31], showing its possible inhibition of COX activity. In the present study, we showed for the first time that γ-mangostin, a xanthone derivative derived from natural products, directly binds to COX and inhibits its activity. This effect of γ-mangostin may contribute to its anti-inflammatory activity.

    C6 cells, derived from rat glial tumors induced by N-nitrosomethyl urea [32], are commonly used as an established cell line for a model of glial cells. Glial cells are known as an important source of PGs in the CNS [33]. Because a high PGE2 level is observed in some diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and AIDS-associated dimension, drugs reducing PGE2 synthesis in glial cells have a possibility to improve the diseases with inflammation in the brain. Thus, γ-mangostin is one of the candidates of the drugs for treatment brain diseases accompanied with inflammation, although further detailed analysis is necessary, such as metabolism and distribution of the drug in vivo.

    Because γ-mangostin has an inhibitory effect of PGE2 synthesis, we examined its site of action. However, γ-mangostin slightly augmented, but not inhibited, the phosphorylation of p42/p44 ERK/MAPK. Furthermore, the A23187-induced AA liberation was slightly augmented, but not inhibited, by γ-mangostin. Interestingly, γ-mangostin alone at a concentration of 30 μM did activate rather than inhibit the liberation of AA, although it inhibited PGE2 synthesis. Because the acting site of γ-mangostin may be downstream of AA liberation, we examined the effect of γ-mangostin on the conversion of AA to PGE2 in microsomal preparations. The conversions of AA to PGE2 was potently inhibited by γ-mangostin, suggesting that the site of γ-mangostin was COX. In the analysis of enzyme activity in vitro, we found that γ-mangostin directly interacted with COX-1 and -2 and inhibited their activities. There is a certain difference in the 50 values of γ-mangostin between intact cells and microsomal preparations. However, the 50 values of γ-mangostin in purified COX enzymes are similar to the 50 values in intact cells. Then, the microsomal preparation was exceptional, and γ-mangostin might be degraded with P450 enzymes in the microsomal preparation. Because γ-mangostin inhibited both the COX-1 and -2, the drug seems to be similar to indomethacin in its selectivity to COX. Indomethacin is known as a competitive, time-dependent, reversible COX inhibitor. It forms an enzyme-inhibitor (EI) complex but then secondarily changes the structure of the protein to produce an intermediate state of enzyme-inhibitor (EI*) complex without covalently modifying the protein [34]. EI* complex formation is relatively slow, occurring in seconds to minutes, and EI* slowly reverts to EI [14]. Aspirin is a competitive, irreversible COX inhibitor. It converts EI to an EI* complex by covalent modification (acylation) of the protein. Once an EI* complex is formed with aspirin, it is not possible for the protein to revert to EI [14]. Like indomethacin, γ-mangostin does not have a site of covalent modification (e.g. acetoxyl group). Then, γ-mangostin may be a reversible COX inhibitor. Furthermore, the kinetic analysis in this study indicated that γ-mangostin inhibited the COX-1 and -2 activities competitively. Thus, γ-mangostin competes with arachidonate for binding to the COX-1 and -2 active site.

    In conclusion, we showed for the first time that γ-mangostin, a tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthone from mangosteen, reduces PG generation through its direct inhibition of COX. γ-Mangostin is an attractive drug because its analogs of tetraoxygenated diprenylated xanthones are contained in many plants, vegetables, and fruits.
     
  10. timberwolf

    timberwolf New Member

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    Yeah, you could always get them in chinatown but now even some of th elarger mainstream groceries has them.

    I love exotic fruits though its often hard to find the macro breakdowns.
    Soursop, sweet sop, ramboultan (sp?) to name a few...
     
  11. Bruised Lee

    Bruised Lee John Kune Do, puncher of faces

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    yes rambutan!!! my second fav fruit.

    oh yeah, you can find canned mangosteen in china town, but they taste like shit.

    canned rambutan is still very good though!!!
     
  12. tryfuhl

    tryfuhl New Member

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    It's like the new noni
     
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