L-Glutamine

Discussion in 'Fitness & Nutrition' started by Filmboy44, Jul 6, 2002.

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  1. Filmboy44

    Filmboy44 Guest

    First off there is no difference between Glutamine and L-glutamine :big grin:

    Glutamine

    Glutamine is classified as a nonessential amino acid since it can be readily synthesized by various tissues such as the skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissue. However, research indicates that glutamine is conditionally essential when the metabolic demand for glutamine exceeds the amount available in the free glutamine pool and that which can be provided by de novo synthesis.

    During exercise or other times of metabolic stress (e.g. fasting, severe injury, illness, etc.), the demand for plasma glutamine markedly increases. For instance, various cells of the immune system such as the lymphocytes and macrophages depend on glutamine as a primary fuel source, and thus the demand for glutamine increases when an immunological response is mounted.

    The enterocytes of the small intestines are the largest consumers of glutamine accounting for about 40-50% of glutamine consumption. Furthermore, glutamine is required for the synthesis of nucleotides. Thus, a sufficient supply of glutamine is particularly important for rapidly dividing cells such as the enterocytes and the immune cells. Therefore, de novo synthesis of glutamine may be insufficient to meet the physiological demand during times of severe, metabolic stress when the amount of free glutamine is rapidly depleted.

    The skeletal muscles are the primary sites for glutamine synthesis and storage as glutamine contributes to approximately 60% of the free amino acids within the skeletal muscles. Glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid within the plasma (3). Glucocorticoid hormones such as cortisol are released during such times of stress and promote the proteolysis of muscle proteins and the release of glutamine into the plasma to attenuate the increased demand for free glutamine. During hypoglycemic conditions such as the fasting state (after approximately 12 hours of fasting), the branched-chain amino acids within the muscle undergo the transamination process (under the influence of the glucocorticoid hormones) to yield keto-acids which are available as precursors for gluconeogenesis or ketogenesis.

    Consequently, glutamate and alanine are generated from their keto-acid counterparts (alpha-keto-glutarate and pyruvate respectively) during the transamination process. Glutamine is synthesized from glutamate and ammonia via glutamine synthetase (4). Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid generated in the muscle tissue during this time since glutamine formation is independent of glycolysis whereas alanine is formed directly from pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis. The majority of nitrogen loss from muscle tissue occurs during the fasting state through glutamine.

    Glutamine may be metabolized to form glucose in the liver. Under certain conditions (e.g. acidosis), glutamine may also be utilized by the kidneys where it is converted into glutamate and then into alpha-keto-glutarate which enters the renal gluconeogenic pathway. Within the small intestines, glutamine is also metabolized into alanine which is further metabolized by the liver as a gluconeogenic precursor.

    Effects/Research

    Maintenance of muscle mass during physiological stress

    Glutamine supplementation may promote nitrogen retention (a positive nitrogen balance) and prevent the loss of muscle protein. A decreased ratio of testosterone to cortisol is believed to be directly responsible for losses in muscle mass since cortisol promotes the synthesis of glutamine synthetase. By maintaining intracellular concentrations of glutamine within the skeletal muscles, the synthesis of glutamine synthetase mRNA may be inhibited and thus the loss of intracellular nitrogen through glutamine may be prevented. Furthermore, by enhancing plasma concentrations of glutamine, the demand for free glutamine by other tissues and cells (e.g. the small intestine and immune cells) is attenuated and thus the release of glutamine from muscle tissues is reduced .

    Increased muscle cell volume

    It has been suggested that glutamine supplementation may induce an anabolic effect as an osmotically active agent. Previous research has indicated that changes in the cellular hydration state (and thus changes in cell volume) may act as a metabolic signal. An increase in cell volume has been associated with cellular anabolism while cell shrinkage has been associated with cellular catabolism

    Risks and Disadvantages to use

    Research has indicated that glutamine supplementation is safe for humans. However, there is little data regarding long-term usage (more than a few weeks) of glutamine supplements Furthermore, more research needs to be conducted to investigate the safety of glutamine supplementation at doses that are posited to promote nitrogen retention in the muscles.
    Generally speaking, the consumption of any one, single amino acid in large doses may inhibit the absorption of other amino acids since amino acids (basic and neutral amino acids) tend to compete for transport across the intestinal epithelium. However, a study performed by Dechelotte et al. reported that glutamine is absorbed effectively in the small intestine.

    The consumption of large doses of free amino acids may result in intestinal discomfort (e.g. abdominal pains and diarrhea) due to the electrolyte-like properties of the amino-acids.

    [​IMG]
    Symbol
    gln q
    Molecular formula
    C5H10N2O3
    Molecular weight
    146.15
    Isoelectric point (pH)
    5.65
    CAS Registry Number
    56-85-9

    [​IMG]
     
  2. Filmboy44

    Filmboy44 Guest

    BTW I am making these for the archives
     
  3. totaly

    totaly Guest

    Just the info i was looking for.

    Good Job!
     
  4. Peyomp

    Peyomp New Member

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    So THATS why the stuff makes me shit... it sucks water out my intestines by acting as an electrolyte, fucking up the concentration gradient in the lumen, and so turgor pressure pushes water into my poo and I poop like a madman.
     
  5. Ceaze

    Ceaze https://hearthis.at/DoYouEvenUplift Moderator

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    if it makes you shit you're taking too much at one time
     
  6. MitzEclipse

    MitzEclipse Member

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    Hi all,

    Just a quesiton - does it matter if you take powder glutamine or capsule form? I know powders are more effective since they absorb faster, but it's harder to take when at the gym.
     
  7. Fatghost28

    Fatghost28 Guest


    Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics metabolise glutamine differently. Type 1's with good sugar control will metabolise glutamine as a non diabetic would. However, care must be taken to monitor blood glucose levels over night as an increase in PM Growth hormone response may require higher levels of NPH insulin.

    Consult with your endocrinologist and monitor yourself closely.
     
  8. MitzEclipse

    MitzEclipse Member

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    BUMP, I'd like to get my question answered please. Thanks
     
  9. Fatghost28

    Fatghost28 Guest

    No real difference between capsule or powdered glutamine in effectiveness.

    Just a cost difference, powder is usually MUCH cheaper
     
  10. MitzEclipse

    MitzEclipse Member

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    Yea, you're definitely right about the cost of powder vs. cost of capsuls.
     
  11. BoostedED9

    BoostedED9 Guest

    I just started taking some Glutamine powder along with some nitro-tech... so far its been working fine. i speed skate so i need to be able to have alot of leg power and stamina, do you guys know of anything else that could go with these 2 that could help me out???
     
  12. wood

    wood New Member

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    Just picked up some glutamine. The instructions say to mix it with water. Does anyone know if it's alright to mix with gatorade, juice, protein shake, etc.?
     
  13. so how many grams should you take per day?
     
  14. Diablo3305

    Diablo3305 Guest

    well what brand is it? cause if it tastes anything like mine you WILL NOT want to mix it with water...you gotta mix it with the strongest shit you can find to get rid of that taste....try using straight vodka.....j/k... i just mix mine with my protein shake...:bigthumb:
     
  15. wood

    wood New Member

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    EAS. Picked it up at Wal-Mart. I havn't mixed it with water yet. Just Gatorade. Tastes fine with that.
     
  16. Diablo3305

    Diablo3305 Guest


    yea.. i have EAS...tastes like ass...i mix it with protein shakes..I can still taste it but i suck it up...what flavor of gatorade did you mix it with?
     
  17. BoostedED9

    BoostedED9 Guest

    i have Optimum Nutrition tasteless type of powder and i jsut mix it in with the nitro tech...
     
  18. Ceaze

    Ceaze https://hearthis.at/DoYouEvenUplift Moderator

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    I used AST GL3 when i had the money and it tasted fine mixed with juice. Never tried it with water. If I pick some up again it will be Optimum cuz it's the cheapest.
     
  19. wood

    wood New Member

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    Lemon-Lime instant mix.
     
  20. wood

    wood New Member

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    According to EAS, 5g after your workout, and another 5-10g with a meal.
     
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